COP26 Blue Zone interior


COP26 keeps 1.5C alive and finalises Paris Agreement

  • COP26 ends with global agreement to accelerate action on climate this decade
  • Two weeks of intense negotiations finally complete the Paris Rulebook 
  • For the first time COP agrees position on phasing down unabated coal power
  • The Glasgow Climate Pact caps two years of diplomacy and ambition raising 

COP26 has today concluded in Glasgow with nearly 200 countries agreeing the Glasgow Climate Pact to keep 1.5C alive and finalise the outstanding elements of the Paris Agreement. 

Climate negotiators ended two weeks of intense talks on Saturday with consensus on urgently accelerating climate action. 

The Glasgow Climate Pact, combined with increased ambition and action from countries, means that 1.5C remains in sight, but it will only be delivered with concerted and immediate global efforts. 

The Glasgow Climate Pact will speed up the pace of climate action. All countries agreed to revisit and strengthen their current emissions targets to 2030, known as Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), in 2022. This will be combined with a yearly political roundtable to consider a global progress report and a Leaders summit in 2023.

The Paris Rulebook, the guidelines for how the Paris Agreement is delivered, was also completed today after six years of discussions. This will allow for the full delivery of the landmark accord, after agreement on a transparency process which will hold countries to account as they deliver on their targets. This includes Article 6, which establishes a robust framework for countries to exchange carbon credits through the UNFCCC.

And for the first time, heeding calls from civil society and countries most vulnerable to climate impacts, the COP agreed action on phasing down fossil fuels. 

COP decisions went further than ever before in recognising and addressing loss and damage from the existing impacts of climate change. 

There were also commitments to significantly increase financial support through the Adaptation Fund as developed countries were urged to double their support to developing countries by 2025. 

The final COP26 text follows two years of intense diplomacy and campaigning undertaken by the UK Presidency to raise ambition and secure action from almost 200 countries. 

Work focussed on driving short term reduction of emissions to limit temperature rises to 1.5C, mobilising both public and private finance, and supporting communities to adapt to climate impacts. 

When the UK took on the COP26 mantle, in partnership with Italy, nearly two years ago, only 30% of the world was covered by net zero targets. This figure is now at around 90%. Over the same period, 154 Parties have submitted new national targets, representing 80% of global emissions. 

The UK Presidency has also been focused on driving action to deliver emissions reductions. We have seen a huge shift in coal, with many more countries committing to phase out unabated coal power and ending international coal financing.  

Alongside this, we have seen a marked commitment to protect precious natural habitats, with 90% of the world’s forests covered by a pledge from 130 countries to end deforestation by 2030. 

While on the world’s roads, the transition to zero emissions vehicles is gathering pace, with some of the largest car manufacturers working together to make all new car sales zero emission by 2040 and by 2035 in leading markets. Countries and cities are following suit with ambitious petrol and diesel car phaseout dates.

Current policies would leave us on a path to a devastating temperature rise. But work done by independent experts Climate Action Tracker show that with the full implementation of the fresh collective commitments could hold temperature rise to 1.8C. 

Even with the action committed both during and before COP26, communities around the world will continue to feel the impact of our changing planet. 

Reflecting on the task ahead, COP26 President Alok Sharma said:

We can now say with credibility that we have kept 1.5 degrees alive. But, its pulse is weak and it will only survive if we keep our promises and translate commitments into rapid action. I am grateful to the UNFCCC for working with us to deliver a successful COP26.

From here, we must now move forward together and deliver on the expectations set out in the Glasgow Climate Pact, and close the vast gap which remains. Because as Prime Minister Mia Mottley told us at the start of this conference, for Barbados and other small island states, ‘two degrees is a death sentence’.

It is up to all of us to sustain our lodestar of keeping 1.5 degrees within reach and to continue our efforts to get finance flowing and boost adaptation. After the collective dedication which has delivered the Glasgow Climate Pact, our work here cannot be wasted.

Notes to editors

Read the full texts on the UNFCCC website.

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Adaptation Research Alliance (ARA) Joint Statement on Launch – 9 November 2021

We the undersigned, representing over 100 organisations across 35 economies, have gathered here at the 2021 United Nations Climate Change conference (COP26), in Glasgow, United Kingdom, to launch the Adaptation Research Alliance (ARA).

A bold new coalition of global adaptation actors, the ARA will catalyse and scale investment in action-oriented research and innovation for adaptation that strengthens resilience in communities most vulnerable to climate change.

As the IPCC Working Group I Sixth Assessment Report has concluded, human activity has and will continue to cause unprecedented changes in the Earth’s climate system, leading to significant impacts on societies, economies and ecosystems. Responding effectively to these impacts requires adaptation that is enabled and supported by actionable knowledge – of both risks of climate change and of tangible responses.

However, the current scope and scale of action-oriented research is insufficient. It is hampered by under-investment, a disconnect between researchers and experiences from the most vulnerable, misaligned incentives, fragmentation, low capacity in developing countries, and limited learning from experience.

As members of the ARA, we endorse its theory of change intended to address these challenges. We commit to co-developing a robust and ambitious portfolio of activities that will lead to a paradigm shift where the needs of the most vulnerable take centre stage, and where research becomes a highly valued tool for all actors involved in climate adaptation including policymakers, funders, practitioners and vulnerable communities.

As a first step in supporting that process, we endorse the Adaptation Research for Impact Principles (PDF), which set out guidelines intended to stimulate the needed systemic change: demand-driven and transdisciplinary research, and evidence-based action that emphasises societal impact, builds capacity, and addresses structural inequalities faced by vulnerable groups.

We recognise and welcome the announcements made today of new investments in action-oriented research and innovation for adaptation and resilience. We encourage others to become co-funders or to develop aligned activities to facilitate the achievement of our collective aims.

The ARA calls for increased investment and capacity in the Global South, but our members and actions are not limited by geographical boundaries. International collaboration, sharing and learning from experiences worldwide are essential for informing effective adaptation at the scale and urgency required to keep pace with the rate of climate change.

Join our movement to help create the systemic change that is needed for this to happen. Together, we can enable solutions for adaptation and resilience that make a difference for those who need it the most. To become a member email:

ARA members

African Agricultural Technology FoundationAction Aid Myanmar
Adaptation Without Borders
African Climate and Development Initiative
African Research Impact Network
Agence Francais De Developpement
All India Disaster Mitigation Institute
Alliance of Biodiversity International and CIAT
Alliance of Indian Wastepickers
Alternative Futures
Australian Centre for International Agriculture Research
Basque Centre for Climate Change
Cabot Institute for the Environment University of Bristol
Climate and Development Knowledge Network
Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International
Christian Aid
Climate Action Network South Asia
Climate Wise Women
Department for Environment, Food and Rural affairs
Desert Research Foundation of Namibia
Environmental Capacities and Sustainability Institute
Environmental Development Action in the Third World
Farm Africa
Global Innovation Fund
Global Resilience Partnership
Gorakhpur Environmental Action Group
Green Africa Youth
Ground Truth Solutions
GSM Association
Helvetas Swiss Incorporation
Human Sciences Research Council
Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations
Institute for Global Environment Strategies
International Institute for Environment and Development
Indian Institute for Human Settlements
Indian School of Business Bharti Institute of Public Policy
Institute Polytechnique Rural de Formation et de Recherche Applique
International Centre for Climate Change and Development
International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development
International Development Research Centre
International Institute for Sustainable Development
International Platform on Adaptation Metrics
International Research Institute for Climate and Society (Columbia University)
ISET international
International Union for Conservation of Nature
Kenya Markets Trust
Kota Kita
Land Rights Organisation of South Africa
Mahila Housing Sewa Trust
Makerere University
Municipality of Caldas
National Science and Technology Centre for Disaster Reduction
Netherland Organisation for Scientific Research
Norwich Institute for Sustainable Development
Overseas Development Institute
Oxford Policy Management
Participatory Research in Asia International Academy
Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre
Royal University of Bhutan
Save the children
School of Oriental and African Studies
Science for Africa Foundation
Scotland’s Rural College
Slum Dwellers International
Stockholm Environment Institute
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
The Met Office
UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology
UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office
United Nations Development Programme
United Kingdom Alliance for Disaster Research
United Nations Environment World Programme Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC)
Universidad Colegio De Antioquia
Universidad Nacional de Rosario
Universitie Nationale De Agriculture
University of Cape Town Climate Systems Analysis Group
University of East Anglia – School of International Development
University of Exeter
University of Leeds
University of Liberia
University of Maryland
University of the Gambia
University of the West Indies
University of Washington Center for Health and the Global Environment
United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security
U.S. Department of Energy
World Health Organisation
Women’s Climate Centre International
World Resource Institute

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The COP26 Health Programme

The COP26 Health Programme has been developed and delivered by the UK government as the Presidency of COP26, with its partners including the World Health Organization (WHO), Health Care Without Harm (HCWH), the UNFCCC Climate Champions, and the Global Climate and Health Alliance (GCHA).

The programme enables transformational change in health systems globally that protects both people and the planet whilst elevating the trusted voices of health professionals to present the health argument for higher ambition on climate change
action. The programme includes three thematic areas:

Building climate resilient and sustainable low carbon health systems

52 countries (including Malawi, Spain, Indonesia, Morocco and the US) have committed to building health systems which are able to withstand the impacts of climate change and which are low carbon and sustainable. These include 47 countries, representing over a third of global health care emissions, which have committed to develop a sustainable, low-carbon health system. 14 of these 47 countries have set a deadline of 2050 or earlier, by which their health system will reach Net Zero.

COP26 Health professional advocacy

Developed and led by our non-government partners, more than 460 health organisations globally have signed the ‘Healthy Climate Prescription’ letter which calls for stronger action on climate change to protect people’s health. This represents more than 46 million health workers, in over 100 countries. The letter was delivered to COP26. The campaign also produced a short video that highlighted the voices of health workers from around the world discussing the health argument for more action on climate change. This was played at the health event on the COP26 Presidency main agenda.

Health adaptation research

Working with the COP26 Adaptation Research Alliance (ARA), the consultation results on the global climate resilient health systems research were announced at COP26 during a co-hosted event with WHO at the Health Pavilion.

During COP26 there were a number of events which focused on the COP26 Health Programme:

  • COP26 Science and Innovation Day
    The Climate Action for Health event focused on the health co-benefits argument for improving health through climate change action. It brought in health professional advocacy voices, covered announcements on country commitments to building climate resilient and sustainable low carbon health systems, and brought forward the health argument for stronger action to address climate change. The session featured a panel session chaired by Minister Morton, with representation from GSK, Green Climate Fund, WHO, Ministers of Health and Environment, former PM Gordon Brown (WHO Ambassador for Global Health Finance) and a climate youth activist.
  • The Health Argument for Climate Action – The COP26 Heath Programme
    This event was organised by WHO, to raise awareness and support for the COP26 Health Programme, and to promote the WHO’s 10 calls for climate action to assure sustained recovery from COVID-19. The event had presentations and discussions from UK government (Minister Morton), UNFCCC, WHO and a range of UN and Non-government organisations.
  • High level meeting on ‘financing the COP26 Health Initiatives’
    This event brought together multilateral and bilateral donors with Health and Environment Ministers, to discuss the barriers, opportunities and solutions to implementing and financing plans to build resilient and sustainable/low-carbon health systems.
  • COP26 Health Programme Press Briefing
    A press briefing was coordinated by WHO to present the COP26 Health Programme announcement on country commitments to build climate resilient and sustainable low carbon health systems. The press briefing featured: UK Government (Minister Morton), WHO, Ministers form USA and Maldives, and Health Care Without Harm.
  • Climate and health research event
    This event developed in partnership with the WHO, encompassed the launch of the WHO report on the state of climate and health research, and the launch of the Global Research Agenda on building climate resilient health systems (as part of the COP26 Health Programme).
SEC Armadillo Building


COP President daily media statement and latest announcements – 9 November

List of announcements, 9 November

  • There has been new momentum from around the world to put gender at the forefront of climate action on Gender Day, as countries and non state actors set out gender and climate commitments, including:
    • Bolivia committing to promote the leadership of women and girls, especially indigenous, Afro-Bolivian, community and rural women, through their involvement in sustainable development projects, as well as to reflect gender data in its Nationally Determined Contributions, and to work with UN Women to promote the use of gender breakdowns in official national statistics on environment and climate change.
    • Canada to ensure that 80% of its $5.3 billion climate investments over the next five years target gender equality outcomes. 
    • Ecuador committing to strengthen leadership, negotiation, and decision-making capacities within women’s organisations working on climate.
    • Germany announcing a new Gender Strategy under its International Climate Initiative (IKI) which will promote gender-transformative approaches in international climate and biodiversity cooperation.
    • Nigeria expanding on its Implementation Strategy for their National Gender and Climate Action Plan. 
    • Sweden announcing new measures to firmly embed gender equality within all their climate action, as mentioned in Sweden’s Climate Policy Action Plan.
    • The UK setting out how £165 million in funding will address the dual challenges of gender inequality and climate change.
    • The USA promoting gender equity and equality in responding to climate change as a priority of its National Strategy on Gender Equity and Equality; investing at least $14 million of the Gender Equity and Equality Action Fund toward gender-responsive climate programming; and investing more than $20 million towards initiatives to increase women’s economic opportunities in the clean energy sector, strengthen action on gender-based violence and the environment, address barriers to women’s land rights, and support women farmers in East Africa to adapt to climate impacts.
  • These announcements help build momentum internationally to drive implementation of the Gender Action Plan agreed at COP25, ahead of the sixty-sixth session of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW66) in March 2022 which will focus on gender equality in the context of climate change, the environment and disaster risk reduction. A full list of commitments made under Feminist Action for Climate Justice can be found on the Generation Equality website (PDF). Further commitments can be found in notes to editors below.  
  • COP26 President Alok Sharma and UK International Champion on Adaptation and Resilience Anne-Marie Trevelyan hosted the Gender Day plenary event accompanied by Little Amal, the 3.5 metre puppet travelling 8,000km in support of refugees. The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, Nancy Pelosi, was among other high profile speakers to address the event.
  • Under the Science and Innovation Day, initiatives launched today will enhance international cooperation between governments, academics, businesses and civil society and ensure science and innovation delivers for all in order to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement:
    • 47 countries have committed to building health systems which are able to withstand the impacts of climate change and which are low carbon and sustainable. These include 42 countries, representing over a third of global health care emissions, which have committed to develop a sustainable, low-carbon health system. 12 of these 42 countries have set a deadline of 2050 or earlier, by which their health system will reach net zero.
    • Visit GOV.UK for more detail on other Science and Innovation Day initiatives.

Press conference opening statement from COP President Alok Sharma, 9 November:

Welcome everyone to Gender, Science and Innovation day. 

We know that women and girls are disproportionately impacted by climate change.

And we cannot allow equality to be a casualty of climate. 

But women and girls are also leading efforts to tackle climate change in communities around the world. 

In the words of Brianna Fruean, they are not drowning, but fighting. 

And we must support those efforts. 

We must enable the full and meaningful participation of women and girls in climate action. 

So I am very pleased to say that countries and other stakeholders have made announcements today to make climate action gender-responsive. 

I am also very pleased to report that yesterday countries collectively pledged in excess of $232 million to the Adaptation Fund, which will support countries to deal with the impact of a changing climate.

Gender and inclusivity run throughout our COP Programme, including Science and Innovation Day. 

And I have always said it is vital that we follow the facts, and allow science to light the way. 

I’m going to turn now to the negotiations.

I am encouraged by countries’ commitments to anchoring science at the heart of the Cover Decision.

Yesterday, my lead negotiator Archie Young convened Heads of Delegations on the elements of the Cover Decision, that we proposed in our Non-Paper.

As I announced at the informal stocktaking plenary yesterday, I have requested pairings of Ministers to support the Presidency in some of the key outstanding issues on which we need to reach agreement.

These Pairs started their work yesterday and are consulting with a wide group of ministers and negotiators. 

And then we convened yesterday evening and the Ministerial pairs reported on their discussions. 

The time has now come to find political consensus on the areas of divergence. and we have only a few days left.

New texts were also tabled on issues including common timeframes, transparency, finance and adaptation.

We are making progress at COP26 but we still have a mountain to climb over the next few days. 

And what has been collectively committed to goes some way, but certainly not all the way, to keeping 1.5C within reach.

The gap in ambition has narrowed. 

Now the world needs confidence that we will shift immediately into implementation, that the pledges made here will be delivered, and that the policies and investment will swiftly follow.

We have an opportunity to succeed. 

The transition to a resilient zero carbon economy is technologically possible, it is economically attractive and it is accelerating everywhere. 

And if we successfully manage this will deliver immense benefits for the world.

Building on existing mechanisms; transparency and accountability must be at the heart of these commitments. 

So overnight the Presidency will publish the first draft of the Cover Decision. 

It will likely require negotiating teams to consult their leaders and capitals.

We have an urgency to our negotiations so I ask Ministers and negotiators to carry out these consultations expeditiously.

Notes to editors:

Other gender commitments made at COP26 include:

  • Norway working to increase and strengthen the role and impact of women and girls in both international and national climate decision-making, including in UNFCCC-processes and in national decision-making on climate policies.
  • Sierra Leone committing to address long-standing discriminatory land tenure practices which deny women access to and control of land through enacting a range of new legislation.
  • A Call to Action from The Rallying Cry, urging the finance community to further invest in the women business leaders and enterprises at the heart of the transformation the world needs.
  • The InsuResilience Centre of Excellence for Gender-smart Climate Solutions, a repository of information and knowledge-exchange platform, will enable gender-transformative action on the ground by providing access to the latest knowledge, hands-on guidance and exciting opportunities, as well as bringing users closer to a vivid community that is re-thinking gender-inclusiveness within the context of Climate and Disaster Risk Finance and Insurance. 
  • Rise2030, an award-winning, grass root initiative emerging from Lebanon, which focuses on empowering women and youth as frontline change makers by enabling them to design, create and build climate conscious-solutions amidst the country’s worst economic, humanitarian and energy crises.
  • A new toolkit from the 2X Collaborative (2XC) to support the finance community to make climate finance investments which close gender gaps across different sectors. 
  • The launch of Gender Equity Diversity Investments, a $100-150 million venture capital firm. GEDI currently has a 200 person network of senior figures and experts, and aims to progress investments in line with several of the Sustainable Development Goals.
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New Mission Innovation Missions

22 Governments and the European Commission, collaborating through Mission Innovation, today committed to four new ‘Missions’ to catalyse investment to accelerate technologies to facilitate urban transitions, eliminate emissions from industry, enable carbon dioxide removal and produce renewable fuels, chemicals, and materials. Combined with three Missions first announced in June 2021, on power systems, hydrogen and shipping, they have the potential to unlock affordable decarbonisation pathways for sectors responsible for 52% of current global emissions.

Fully consistent with the Breakthrough Agenda, announced by world leaders on 2 November at COP26, Mission Innovation is a key platform for governments and the private sector to work together to develop and demonstrate clean technologies across multiple sectors. The aim is to use research, development and demonstration investments by government and the ingenuity of business and finance to make clean energy solutions more affordable, accessible, and attractive than their alternatives by 2030.

Urban Transitions Mission

The Challenge

Busy, dynamic and economically productive cities account for nearly three-quarters of global energy consumption. To meet our climate goals, national governments, local governments, the private sector, and civil society must quickly come together to develop, test, and widely disseminate low-carbon innovations for urban areas worldwide.

The Goal

By 2030, deliver at least 50 large-scale, integrated demonstration projects in urban environments around the world, providing a pathway for all cities to adopt net zero carbon solutions as the default option.

The Mission

We will drive research and innovation for net zero carbon urban systems and mobilise cities and national governments to develop and test innovative solutions. We will share our findings with cities around the world through (customisable) innovation and investment roadmaps and show that all aspects of modern life in large urban areas – including housing, transport, energy and materials access, production and consumption, and industry – can integrate reliable and affordable clean energy solutions.


  • European Commission, Directorate-General for Research & Innovation 
  • Global Covenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy (GCoM) 
  • Joint Programming Initiative (JPI) Urban Europe

Core group members:

  • India, Ministry of Science and Technology 
  • Chile, Ministry of Energy / Energy Sustainability Agency 
  • Sweden, Swedish Energy Agency / Ministry of the Environment and Energy 
  • MI Innovation Community on Affordable Heating and Cooling of Buildings

Support group members:

  • Student Energy 
  • IEA (TCP on Empowering Cities for a Net Zero Future) 
  • WEF 
  • UNFCCC (Global Innovation HUB) 
  • EIT Climate KIC (Clean Cities project) 
  • UNEP / SE4All (UN Urban Energy Compacts) 
  • IRENA 
  • European Network of Living Labs (ENoLL)

Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) Mission

The Challenge

Modelling by the International Panel on Climate Change indicates that removal of 100 to 1,000 gigatonnes of CO2 this century may be needed to achieve deep decarbonisation and avoid exceeding the 1.5°C climate target. CDR technologies can complement ongoing efforts to mitigate emissions; however, further research and insights are needed to enhance our understanding of some CDR approaches, accurately quantify carbon removals, and reduce costs. 

The Goal

Enable Carbon Dioxide Removal technologies to achieve a net reduction of 100 millionmetric tons of CO2  per year globally by 2030.

The Mission

We will catalyse a global CDR industry by advancing research and development for CDR technologies (1), harmonising lifecycle analyses (LCAs) and technoeconomic analyses (TEAs), and facilitating near-term pilot-scale tests and deployment.


  • United States of America, Department of Energy
  • Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Energy
  • Canada, Natural Resources Canada

Core members:

  • Norway, Gassnova

Supporting members: 

  • Australia, national Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) 
  • European Commission, Directorate-General for Research & Innovation 
  • Japan, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry 
  • India, Ministry of Science and Technology (DBT and DST)

Net Zero Industries Mission

Heavy industries like steel, cement, and chemicals, require extremely high temperatures and use massive amounts of energy. These three sectors are responsible for a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions. These sectors also encounter high investment costs for process equipment with long payback periods and a lifetime of more than 20 years.

Unlocking emissions reductions at the end of their next refurbishment cycles could prevent nearly 60Gt CO 2 and help put industrial sectors onto a net zero emissions pathway by 2050. This Mission will be co-led by Austria and Australia, with further information published in 2022.

Biorefineries Mission

Heavy industries like steel, cement, and chemicals, require extremely high temperatures and use massive amounts of energy. These three sectors are responsible for a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions. These sectors also encounter high investment costs for process equipment with long payback periods and a lifetime of more than 20 years.

To realise this potential and make bio-based alternatives cost-competitive, India and the Netherlands are leading the development of the Integrated Biorefineries Mission. More information will follow in 2022.

Lord Goldsmith


Nations and businesses commit to create sustainable agriculture and land use

  • 45 governments pledge urgent action and investment to protect nature and shift to more sustainable ways of farming
  • 95 high profile companies from a range of sectors commit to being ‘Nature Positive’, agreeing to work towards halting and reversing the decline of nature by 2030 
  • Today marks end of week one of COP26, with negotiations gathering pace

Governments and businesses are joining farmers and local communities today at COP26, securing new agreements to protect nature and accelerate the shift to sustainable agriculture and land use practices by making them more attractive, accessible and affordable than unsustainable alternatives. 

Alongside the events marking Nature and Land Use Day, today marks the end of week one of COP26, with negotiations gathering pace and work focussing on week two. 

Twenty-six nations set out new commitments to change their agricultural policies to become more sustainable and less polluting, and to invest in the science needed for sustainable agriculture and for protecting food supplies against climate change, laid out in two ‘Action Agendas’. All continents were represented, with countries including India, Colombia, Vietnam, Germany, Ghana, and Australia.

Examples of national commitments aligned with this agenda include:

  • Brazil’s plan to scale its ABC+ low carbon farming programme to 72m hectares, saving 1 billion tonnes of emissions by 2030
  • Germany’s plans to lower emissions from land use by 25m tonnes by 2030
  • The UK’s aim to engage 75% of farmers in low carbon practices by 2030

The UK also announced funding of £500m to support the implementation of the Forest, Agriculture and Commodity Trade (FACT) Roadmap that was launched during the World Leaders Summit earlier this week, in which 28 countries are working together to protect forests while promoting development and trade. A further £65 million will support a  ‘Just Rural Transition’ to help developing countries shift policies and practices to more sustainable agriculture and food production. 

Commitments made by countries today will help to implement the Glasgow Leaders’ Declaration on Forests and Land Use which is now endorsed by 134 countries covering 91% of the world’s forests. The Declaration aims to halt and reverse forest loss and land degradation by 2030. 

COP26 President, Alok Sharma said:

If we are to limit global warming and keep the goal of 1.5C alive, then the world needs to use land sustainably and put protection and restoration of nature at the heart of all we do.

The commitments being made today show that nature and land use is being recognised as essential to meeting the Paris Agreement goals, and will contribute to addressing the twin crises of climate change and biodiversity loss.

Meanwhile, as we look ahead to negotiations in week two of COP, I urge all parties to come to the table with the constructive compromises and ambitions needed.

The World Bank will commit to spending $25 billion in climate finance annually to 2025 through its Climate Action Plan, including a focus on agriculture and food systems.  

In a show of similar commitment from the private sector, almost 100 high-profile companies from a range of sectors committed to becoming ‘Nature Positive’. Commitments include supermarkets pledging to cut their environmental impact across climate and nature-loss and fashion brands guaranteeing the traceability of their materials. 

Representatives from Indigenous and local communities will be participating in events throughout nature day.  As stewards of 80% of the world’s remaining biodiversity, Indigenous Peoples are leaders in how to develop nature-based, resilient and effective solutions to climate change. 

Nature day also follows the announcement on Ocean Action Day on 5 November of over ten new countries signing up to the ‘30by30’ target to protect 30% of the world’s ocean by 2030.  These were: Bahrain, Jamaica, St Lucia, Sri Lanka, Saudi Arabia, India, Qatar, Samoa, Tonga, Gambia and Georgia. The target is now supported by over 100 countries.

Notes to Editors

  • Please email for any COP26 Press/Media inquiries or call the COP26 Press Office on 0207 276 0269.
  • The 45 countries pledging urgent action and investment to protect nature and shift to more sustainable ways of farming include 26 countries supporting either the Policy Action Agenda for the Transition to Sustainable Agriculture or the Global Action Agenda for Innovation in Agriculture, as well as the 28 countries participating in the Forest, Agriculture and Commodity Trade (FACT) Dialogue (with some countries participating in both).
  • Sustainable Agriculture Policy Action Agenda for the Transition to Sustainable Agriculture and Global Action Agenda for Innovation in Agriculture supporters: Australia, Uganda, Madagascar, India, Tanzania, Vietnam, Nigeria, Lesotho, Laos, Indonesia, Guinea, Ghana, Germany, Philippines, Ethiopia, UK, Colombia, Costa Rica, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Philippines, Sierra Leone, Spain, Switzerland, UAE.
  • FACT Roadmap supporting states: Belgium, Brazil, Côte D’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Denmark, France, Gabon, Italy, Japan, Liberia, Malaysia, Norway, Paraguay, Peru, Republic of Congo, Republic of Korea, Uruguay, US, European Commission.

Glasgow Leaders’ Declaration on Forests and Land Use

  • Launched on 2 November, 134 countries covering 91% of the world’s forests (including Brazil, China, Russia and Indonesia) have now endorsed the Glasgow Leaders’ Declaration on Forests and Land Use, committing to halt and reverse forest loss and land degradation by 2030. 

The full package of commitments and action will also include:

Agricultural reform and innovation:

  • A new global initiative launched to reach 100 million farmers at the centre of food systems transformation with net zero and nature positive innovations by 2030 via a multi-stakeholder platform convened by World Economic Forum (WEF) involving farmers’ organisations, civil society, businesses and other partners.
  • The Policy Action Agenda for the Transition to Sustainable Agriculture sets out pathways and actions that countries can take to repurpose public policies and support to food and agriculture, to deliver these outcomes and enable a just rural transition¹. It also sets out actions and opportunities for other stakeholders (international organisations, food producers, financial entities, researchers, civil society and others) to channel their expertise, knowledge and resources in support of this agenda.
  • New UK funding of £38.5m over 2 years to the CGIAR, the world’s leading agricultural science and innovation organisation, which will create and scale new crops and technologies yielding climate, nature, health, gender and economic impact. The CGIAR was formerly called the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. Funding will support the development and deployment of:
    • crop varieties that are climate-resilient (more resistant to heat, drought and flooding) and more nutritious (with elevated levels of essential micronutrients). 
    • agricultural practices that are more productive, sustainable and climate-resilient; 
    • new livestock varieties, diagnostics and management practices, which reduce the risks faced by pastoralists and livestock keepers.
    • Foresight and trade off tools for risk management of, and resilience to, major threats emerging from the food system, including anti-microbial resistance and emerging zoonotic diseases.
    • evidence on better policies to help poor farmers use new technology to access markets, reduce risks and increase incomes. 
  • A new UK initiative to transform climate-resilient food systems through research and innovation. The Gilbert Initiative will coordinate investments in evidence generation, technology development and delivery to support a food system that by 2030 feeds 9 billion people with nutritious, safe foods; uses environmental resources sustainably; enhances resilience and adaptation to climate change; and generates inclusive growth and jobs.

Sustainable production and consumption:

  • Sainsbury’s, on behalf of the big 5 UK supermarkets, will commit to halving the environmental impact of the average UK shopping basket by 2030 through a new partnership with WWF called ‘basket measures’ – the aim is to turn the food and agriculture system from a driver of climate change into a nature hero by cutting negative impacts and boosting regenerative agriculture to restore nature. It will focus on seven key themes, climate change, deforestation, sustainable agriculture, sustainable diets, marine, waste and packaging.

Ocean protection:

  • The UK announced a £6m investment in the World Bank’s PROBLUE as part of its Blue Planet Fund, supporting the development of the blue economy to act as a key driver of growth in small island developing states (SIDS) and coastal least developed countries. 
  • The Ocean Risk and Resilience Action Alliance, a multi-sector collaboration designed to drive investment into coastal natural capital by pioneering ground-breaking finance products that incentivise blended finance and private investment, hosted a roundtable yesterday that saw commitments towards the partnership’s target to secure at least $20m USD.
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The Global Action Agenda for Innovation in Agriculture

The Global Action Agenda on Transforming Agricultural Innovation is the outcome of the Transforming Agriculture Innovation Systems for People, Nature and Climate which was launched by Lord Goldsmith at the Climate Adaptation Summit in January 21. This #Climateshot campaign – co-led by FCDO and the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture, and Food Security (CCAFS) aims to:

  • Increase investment in agricultural research and innovation to create more climate-resilient, low-emission technologies and practices;
  • Ensure at least a third of agricultural research and innovation investments deliver demand-driven solutions across food systems, to protect nature and limit climate change;
  • Showcase successful business models and promote public-private partnerships that deploy these innovations on the scale needed to meet the climate and food security challenge;
  • Forge consensus on the evidence of what works, and facilitate inclusive dialogue among food and climate champions around the world.

The Global Action Agenda has secured more than 160 allies as diverse as the World Bank, WWF, World Food Programme, UN Foundation, Columbia Climate School, Bayer, Rainforest Alliance, World Economic Forum, Asian Development Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, CDC Group, Rabobank and the Environmental Defence Fund.  It is supported by Indonesia, Madagascar, Morocco, Nigeria, Guinea, Lesotho, Vietnam and the UK and relevant government ministries or national agriculture research institutes of Australia, Uganda, Laos, India, Philippines, Ethiopia, Ghana, Tanzania and Malaysia.  See the full list of allies at:

The Global Action Agenda for Innovation in Agriculture is supported by four key initiatives: 

  • The 100 Million Farmers Multi-Stakeholder Platform, led by the World Economic Forum.
  • The Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases (GRA) initiative, which brings countries together to find ways to grow more food without growing greenhouse gas emissions. 
  • The new CGIAR organisational structure, research and innovation strategy and portfolio of initiatives.
  • ClimateShot allies from the impact investment community comprise over 20 investors, funders and initiatives, including innovative funds aiming to mobilise over US$5 billion in financing to transform agriculture for people, nature and the climate

Read more at:

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Chair’s Summary – Policy Dialogue on Accelerating Transition to Sustainable Agriculture through Redirecting Public Policies and Support and Scaling Innovation

The Policy Dialogue on Accelerating Transition to Sustainable Agriculture was co-convened by the UK as in-coming COP Presidency and by the World Bank. Its intent was to catalyse efforts to deliver the global transformation in agriculture and land use so urgently needed to tackle climate change, to produce nutritious food, to support jobs and economic growth, and to protect our planet.

Launched in April 2021, 34 countries participated in the period up to COP26 either at Ministerial and, or senior technical levels, mainly through Ministries of Agriculture. Participating countries and representative institutions include: African Union, Angola, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, European Commission, Ethiopia, Germany, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Madagascar, Malawi, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Philippines, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, UEA, Uganda, UK, USA, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

In joining this Policy Dialogue, participants recognised the importance of agriculture in producing food  and providing livelihoods for billions of people across the world, as well as  a major economic sector.  At the same time, agriculture is the second main driver of greenhouse gas emissions after energy and the major cause of biodiversity loss, which in turn undermines food systems, and poses risks for farmers, communities and economies.

Participants agreed that there is an urgent need and potential for transformation in agriculture and food systems.  Globally, countries provide over $700 billion per year in support to their agriculture sectors whether through subsidies, market price supports or other mechanisms.  Through the Policy Dialogue, participants shared evidence and experiences on designing and implementing public policies and support to re-shape agricultural practices and investments.  This included both the challenges and the opportunities of redirecting public finance, and also the trade-offs involved in changing policy to incentivise and support farmers and businesses to invest in sustainable, resilient agriculture. 

There was discussion of new approaches to research, development and innovation to help catalyse the needed transition to sustainable food systems.

Participants also highlighted the importance of partnerships for action; between governments and other national stakeholders and through government-to-government collaboration.

Experiences shared through the Policy Dialogue suggest that action is needed at multiple levels: on policy design and implementation; exchange of knowledge, information and tools; coordinated research to identify and develop effective approaches and technologies; support for farmers to develop, adopt and take effective practices to scale; and to develop a shared understanding of ‘sustainable agriculture’, how to assess this and how to integrate it into markets.

The Dialogues covered a range of topics, summarised below:

Farmers as stewards of nature

Government policies can create incentives and support to help farmers invest in sustainable land use. With this aim, some countries have introduced payment for eco-systems services and others are redirecting policies and support towards schemes that reward farmers for protecting or restoring the environment, reducing emissions and increasing carbon sequestration.

Some countries are adopting an integrated landscape approach, including recognition of tenure rights, to improve the sustainability of agricultural practices. It was noted that international markets play a significant role, where consumer demand for sustainable products and a fair price to farmers can enable sustainable production of food crops and agricultural commodities such as soya and palm oil.

Research and innovation

Increasing productivity whilst limiting land use (preventing deforestation or agriculture expansion onto other fragile eco-systems), reversing harm to the environment and increasing carbon sequestration will all be needed to deliver sustainable food systems.

Investment will be needed in new technologies or practices, according to local context. For instance, this could be to scale up agro-ecological approaches or to reduce emissions from livestock. Government support may be needed to promote and scale farmer-led innovations appropriate to local context and needs.

Collaboration and partnerships including public-private partnerships are key to increase investment in innovation at scale; to catalyse private investment; to ensure farmers are heard and help to shape innovation; to build consensus and to identify effective approaches to scale up what works.

Ambition to Action

Building a shared understanding of why we need sustainable agriculture and opportunities to get there is critical for the transition. This includes engaging with farmers, businesses and other stakeholders.

Stakeholder consultations including with farmers and other key players are helping governments to formulate and secure buy-in to new policies, for instance to decarbonise agriculture and adapt to climate change, whilst ensuring productivity for food and economic benefits.  Cross-government approaches, building consensus with farmers and setting ambitious targets can help to accelerate change. Consumer choices are instrumental in deciding what gets produced and need to be considered in policy reforms.

Measuring and monitoring progress, for instance on emissions reduction, are needed to keep actions on track. 

Forward Look

Rich experiences shared through the Policy Dialogue are reflected in a growing Compendium of Country Case Studies. Interested lead countries have each contributed a policy briefing note that reflects on policy actions taken to advance the transition to sustainable agriculture. This online Compendium will be launched at COP26 and provides a living platform for further sharing. To date, contributing countries include: Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ghana, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Malawi, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Sierra Leone, Switzerland, UK, US and Vietnam.

Experience shared through the Policy Dialogue has led to the development of a Policy Action Agenda (PAA). This is a non-prescriptive framework for action, to guide governments and other stakeholders in finding pathways to sustainable agriculture. It provides a working definition of sustainable agriculture and, drawing on contributions to the Policy Dialogue, it illustrates the type of actions that governments and others can take.

In endorsing the PAA, stakeholders commit to progress a just transition to sustainable agriculture, through appropriate policies, investments and support according to their context and mandate.

The PAA is further supported by a Global Action Agenda on Transforming Agricultural Innovation (PDF, 16 pages – 1.5MB) which provides a joint vision, objectives and a set of joint research priorities.

The Policy Dialogue – both as an independent channel and through other, existing fora – will continue to provide a platform beyond COP26 to share knowledge and experience, to build partnerships and to collaborate as we jointly seek to resolve policy and practice related issues as well as other barriers to sustainable agriculture.

Signed by

Juergen Voegele, Vice President, Sustainable Development, World Bank

Rt. Hon George Eustice MP, Secretary of State, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

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Global Coal to Clean Power Transition Statement

We, the undersigned, noting that coal power generation is the single biggest cause of global temperature increases, recognise the imperative to urgently scale-up the deployment of clean power to accelerate the energy transition. 

We commit to work together to make clean power the most affordable and accessible option globally, with ensuing economic and health benefits as we build back better from the COVID pandemic. 

Our shared vision is to accelerate a transition away from unabated coal power generation, as is essential to meet our shared goals under the Paris Agreement, in a way that benefits workers and communities and ensures access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all by 2030 (SDG7).

Unabated’ coal power generation is described by the G7 and the IEA as referring to the use of coal power that is not mitigated with technologies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, such as Carbon Capture Utilisation and Storage (CCUS). You can find out more in this G7 press release (July 2021) and on page 193 of the IEA ‘Net Zero by 2050’ report.

We commit to the following actions to drive this global transition forward, and we encourage others to make similar commitments:

  1. To rapidly scale up our deployment of clean power generation and energy efficiency measures in our economies, and to support other countries to do the same, recognising the leadership shown by countries making ambitious commitments, including through support from the Energy Transition Council;
  2. To rapidly scale up technologies and policies in this decade to achieve a transition away from unabated coal power generation in the 2030s (or as soon as possible thereafter) for major economies and in the 2040s (or as soon as possible thereafter) globally, consistent with our climate targets and the Paris Agreement, recognising the leadership shown by countries making ambitious commitments, including through the Powering Past Coal Alliance;
  3. To cease issuance of new permits for new unabated coal-fired power generation projects (New’ coal-fired power generation projects are defined as coal-fired power generation projects that have not yet reached financial close), cease new construction of unabated coal-fired power generation projects and to end new direct government support for unabated international coal-fired power generation, recognising the leadership of countries making ambitious commitments, including through the No New Coal Power Compact;
  4. To strengthen our domestic and international efforts to provide a robust framework of financial, technical, and social support to affected workers, sectors and communities to make a just and inclusive transition away from unabated coal power in a way that benefits them, and expands access to clean energy for all, recognising the leadership of countries endorsing the COP26 Just Transition Declaration.

We recognize that countries, workers, and communities in the developing world require support to transition from coal and realise a sustainable and economically inclusive energy future, and that international co-operation will be needed to provide such support.

We recognise that while significant progress has been made to realise our shared vision, our task is not yet complete, and we call on others to join us as we redouble our efforts to accelerate the global energy transition over the coming years.

Statement supported by:

The Republic of Albania, H.E. Ms. Belinda Balluku, Minister of Energy and Infrastructure

The Republic of Azerbaijan, HE Mr Parviz Shahbazov, Minister of Energy

The Kingdom of Belgium, Minister Zakia Khattabi, Minister for Climate, Environment, Sustainable Development and Green Deal

The Republic of Botswana, endorsing clauses 1, 2 and 4

Brunei Darussalam, Hon. Dato Seri Setia Ir. Awang Haji Suhaimi bin Haji Gafar, Minister of Development

Canada, Minister Steven Guilbeault

The Republic of Chile, Minister Juan Carlos Jobet

The Republic of Cote d’Ivoire, Minister Thomas Camara

The Republic of Croatia, Mr Tomislav Ćorić

The Republic of Cyprus, Environment Minister Mr. Costas Kadis

The Kingdom of Denmark, Minister Dan Jørgensen

The Republic of Ecuador, Minister Juan Carlos Bermeo, Minister of Energy and Non Renewable Resources 

​​The Arab Republic of Egypt

The European Union, Commissioner Kadri Simson

The Republic of Finland, Minister Mika Lintilä

The French Republic, Minister Barbara Pompili

The Federal Republic of Germany, Minister Svenja Schulze

Hungary, Minister Attila Steiner, endorsing clauses 1, 2 and 4

The Republic of Indonesia, Minister Arifin, endorsing clauses 1, 2 and 4. Indonesia signs up to the COP26 Coal to Clean Power Transition statement, excluding clause 3 but as part of its commitment to reach net zero by 2060, or sooner with international assistance, Indonesia will consider accelerating coal phase out into the 2040s, conditional on agreeing additional international financial and technical assistance.

Ireland, Minister Eamon Ryan TD

The State of Israel, Minister Ms. Karine Elharrar and Minister Tamar Zandberg

The Italian Republic, Ecological Transition Minister, Roberto Cingolani

The Republic of Kazakhstan, First Vice-Minister of Energy, Murat Zhurebekov, endorsing clause 4

The Principality of Liechtenstein, H.E. Ms. Sabine Monauni 

The Republic of Maldives, Minister Aminath Shauna

The Islamic Republic of Mauritania, Mariam Bekaye

The Islamic Republic of Mauritius, Honourable Minister Kavydass Ramano 

The Kingdom of Morocco, Minister Benali, endorsing clauses 1, 3 and 4

The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, Minister Ramashay Prasad Yadav

The Kingdom of the Netherlands, Minister Tom de Bruijn

New Zealand, Minister James Shaw

Republic of North Macedonia, Minister Naser Nuredini

The Republic of Philippines, Secretary Cusi, endorsing clause 1 and partially clauses 2 and 4. The Philippines would like to reiterate a call for climate justice given the Philippines is not a major emitter of greenhouse gases but bears the worsening impacts of climate change, and to emphasise that energy security is foremost as energy transition is a means to improve the lives of the Philippines’ people and the country’s economic development.

The Republic of Poland, Minister Anna Moskwa, Minister of Climate and Environment

The Portuguese Republic, Minister João Pedro Matos Fernandes

The Republic of Senegal, Minister Gladima

The Republic of Singapore, Minister Grace Fu

The Slovak Republic, Environment Minister  Ján Budaj

Federal Republic of Somalia, Hon Amb Gamal Mohamed Hassan, Minister of Planning, Investment and Economic Development

The Republic of Korea, H.E. Moon Sung-wook, Minister of Trade, Industry and Energy

The Kingdom of Spain, Minister Teresa Ribera

The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, Minister of Power Gamini Lokuge

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, COP26 President Alok Sharma

The Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, Minister Nguyen Hong Dien

Wales, Julie James, Minister for Climate Change

The Republic of Zambia, Minister Hon. Collins Nzovu MP, Minister of Green Economy and Environment


Jeju, Special Self-Governing Province, Republic of Korea, Koo Man-Seop, Acting Governor 

Negros Oriental, the Philippines, Governor Degamo

The State of Hawaii, USA, Governor Ige

The State of Oregon, USA, Governor Brown

The Australian Capital Territory Act Government, Australia, Minister Shane Rattenbury MLA


ACWA Power, Paddy Padmanathan, President & CEO

Carbon Tracker, Jon Grayson, CEO

Diageo, Kirstie McIntyre, Director

Drax, Will Gardiner, CEO

EDF Group, Alexandre Perra, Group Senior Executive Vice-President

EDF UK, Simone Rossi, CEO

EDP, Miguel Stilwell de Andrade, CEO

Engie, Catherine MacGregor, CEO

Envision, Lei Zhang, CEO

Global Solar Council, Gianni Chianetta, CEO

GWEC, Ben Backwell, CEO

Iberdrola, Ignacio S Galan, CEO

International Geothermal Association, Marit Brommer, Executive Director

Legal & General Group Plc, Simon Gadd (ESG Director), John Godfrey (Public Affairs Director), Sara Heald (Head of CSR)

Local Authority Pension Fund Forum (LAPFF) , Cllr Doug McMurdo, LAPFF chair 

Mott MacDonald, Professor Denise Bower, Executive Director

National Grid, John Pettigrew, CEO

Ørsted, Mads Nipper, CEO


PSEG, Ralph Izzo, CEO

Renew Power, Sumant Sinha

RES, Eduardo Medina, CEO

Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy, Andreas Nauen, CEO

SSE, Alistair Philips-Davies, CEO

UKSIF, James Alexander, Chief Executive

Varma, Hanna Kaskela

Wind turbines


End of coal in sight at COP26

5 minute read

  • At least 23 countries have made new commitments today to phase out coal power, including five of the world’s top 20 coal power-using countries
  • Major international banks commit to effectively end all international public financing of new unabated coal power by the end of 2021
  • At least 25 countries and public finance institutions commit to ending international public support for the unabated fossil fuel energy sector by the end of 2022
  • Boost comes as overall a 190-strong coalition agrees to phase out coal power and end support for new coal power plants thanks to a package of support from the UK and international partners

Coal is being consigned to history today at COP26, as countries, banks and organisations move away from the single biggest contributor to climate change.

A just transition to clean energy and the rapid phase-out of coal has been at the heart of the COP26 Presidency as part of its efforts to minimise temperature rises in line with the Paris Agreement. The breadth of commitments in Glasgow today at Energy Day signal the world is moving towards a renewable future.

At least 23 nations made new commitments to phase out coal power, including Indonesia, Vietnam, Poland, South Korea, Egypt, Spain, Nepal, Singapore, Chile and Ukraine.  In a new ‘Global Coal to Clean Power Transition Statement’, countries also committed to scaling up clean power and ensuring a just transition away from coal.  

Today’s announcements follow a collapse in the financing of coal, as developed nations have pledged new support to help developing countries make the transition to clean energy. 

Banks and financial institutions also made landmark commitments at COP26 today to end the funding of unabated coal, including major international lenders like HSBC, Fidelity International and Ethos. 

This follows recent announcements from China, Japan and South Korea to end overseas coal financing which now means all significant public international financing for coal power has effectively ended.

In addition, a group of 25 countries including COP26 partners Italy, Canada, the United States and Denmark together with public finance institutions have signed a UK-led joint statement committing to ending international public support for the unabated fossil fuel energy sector by the end of 2022 and instead prioritising support for the clean energy transition. 

Collectively, this could shift an estimated $17.8 billion a year in public support out of fossil fuels and into the clean energy transition. Developing countries including Ethiopia, Fiji and the Marshall Islands offered their support, signalling growing unity. This is an inclusive agenda that must recognise the development and energy needs of all economies.

This is a historic step. It is the first time a COP presidency has prioritised this issue and put a bold end date on international fossil fuel finance. COP26 has set a new gold standard on the Paris Alignment of international public finance and sends a clear signal for private investors to follow.

Today, 28 new members also signed up to the world’s largest alliance on phasing out coal. The Powering Past Coal Alliance, launched and co-chaired by the UK and Canada. New members include Chile and Singapore, joining more than 160 countries, sub-nationals and businesses. 

And 20 new countries, including Vietnam, Morocco and Poland committed to building no new coal plants, matching similar announcements over the past year by Pakistan, Malaysia and the Philippines, and building on the No New Coal Power Compact launched in September by Sri Lanka, Chile, Montenegro and European partners.

There has been a 76% drop in the number of new coal plants planned globally over the last six years since the Paris Agreement was adopted. This equates to the cancellation of more than 1000GW of new coal plants.

In separate announcements, major emerging economies today took significant steps to move from coal to clean power. India, Indonesia, the Philippines and South Africa announced partnerships with the Climate Investment Funds to accelerate their transitions away from coal power, backed by a dedicated $2 billion facility. Indonesia and the Philippines announced pioneering partnerships with the Asian Development Bank to support the early retirement of coal plants. 

These followed the ground-breaking $8.5 billion deal to support South Africa’s just transition to clean energy announced at the World Leaders Summit on Tuesday.

COP26 President, Alok Sharma said:

From the start of the UK’s Presidency, we have been clear that COP26 must be the COP that consigns coal to history.  With these ambitious commitments we are seeing today, the end of coal power is now within sight.

Securing a 190-strong coalition to phase out coal power and end support for new coal power plants and the Just Transition Declaration signed today, show a real international commitment to not leave any nation behind.

Together we can accelerate access to electricity for more than three quarters of a billion people who currently lack access, consigning energy poverty to history as we create the clean power future needed to keep 1.5 alive.

Gonzalo Muñoz and Nigel Topping, High Level Climate Action Champions said: ​​

With 80% growth in their capacity commitment—from 25 to 45 gigawatts of electrolysis—in one year, the Green Hydrogen Catapult and its members demonstrate the near-term potential for exponential growth in green hydrogen, enabled by local and global policy support and rapidly growing customer interest.

It is fantastic to see the ambition in renewables deployment, with Race to Zero members committing to reaching over 750GW of installed renewable energy capacity by 2030. This will only grow as more energy companies join the Race to Zero emissions, and decarbonisation ambitions continue to increase, reflecting the exponential progress we have seen to date in the sector.

Other announcements on Energy Day included:

  • A strategic partnership between the Energy Transition Council and the Global Energy Alliance for People and Planet (GEAPP). The GEAPP, announced on 2 November with $10 billion funding from philanthropies and development banks, aims to deliver clean, renewable energy to 1 billion people in developing and emerging economies and create 150 million green jobs by 2030.  The partnership will include up to £25 million from GEAPP to support the Energy Transition Council’s Rapid Response Facility.
  • Fourteen countries including India, Indonesia, Japan and Nigeria committed to the largest ever increase in product efficiency by signing up to a global goal of doubling the efficiency of lighting, cooling, motors and refrigeration by 2030 with support from the Climate Group’s EP100 initiative of 129 businesses.
  • The launch of the Africa and Latin America Green Hydrogen Alliances with membership from six African countries and five Latin American countries. They aim to kickstart development of millions of metric tons of production of reliably near-zero-carbon green hydrogen to be used in domestic and international industries worldwide. 

Notes to editors

  • The countries committing today to phase out coal power include 5 of the world’s top 20 coal power generating countries. These are: South Korea (5th), Indonesia (7th), Vietnam (9th), Poland (13th) and Ukraine (19th).
  • As part of its country statements, Indonesia signs up to the COP26 Coal to Clean Power Transition Statement, excluding clause 3 but as part of its commitment to reach net zero by 2060, or sooner with international assistance, Indonesia will consider accelerating coal phase out into the 2040s, conditional on agreeing additional international financial and technical assistance with development partners.
  • The South Africa Just Energy Transition Partnership was first announced during the World Leaders’ Summit on 2 November. It could prevent 1-1.5Gt of emissions over the next 20 years in South Africa, equal to three times annual UK emissions. It could set new precedents for supported transitions in other high-emitting coal-using countries, including Indonesia and India.
  • The $10 billion quoted to support emerging economies with the transition includes (1) the South Africa Just Energy Transition Partnership and (2) the Climate Investment Funds Accelerating Coal Transition facility (CIF ACT), accounting for the funding that CIF ACT will leverage through multilateral development banks and private partners. 
  • The $20bn quoted to support developing countries includes (1) the South Africa Just Energy Transition Partnership and (2) the Climate Investment Funds Accelerating Coal Transition facility (CIF ACT), accounting for the funding that CIF ACT will leverage through multilateral development banks and private partners and (3) the new $10 billion energy fund, the Global Energy Alliance for People and Planet.
  • The UK-led joint statement committing to ending international public support for the unabated fossil fuel energy sector unites a strong group of climate champions, including the world’s biggest economy and major international donor (the US). The signatories are:
    • OECD: Canada, Costa Rica, Denmark, Finland, New Zealand, Portugal, Slovenia, Switzerland, United Kingdom and United States. 
    • Non-OECD: Ethiopia, Fiji, Mali, the Marshall Islands, Moldova, South Sudan, The Gambia, Zambia. 
    • Public Finance Institutions: the Development Bank of Minas Gerais (BDMG, Brazil), the East African Development Bank (EADB),  the European Investment Bank (EIB), Financierings-Maatschappij voor Ontwikkelingslanden N.V. (FMO) and Agence Française de Développement (AFD).

Image credit: Getty Images

SEC Armadillo Building


Global Finance Ministers gather to discuss how public and private finance can lead the transition to a net zero, climate resilient world

5 minute read

  • Finance Ministers gather in Glasgow to discuss mobilising funding for rapid, large-scale climate action
  • Discussions follow new pledges of public climate funding from developed nations at COP26 World Leaders Summit, including significant pledges for climate adaptation
  • Finance commitments for climate mitigation led by new announcement at Leaders Summit of $8.5 billion Just Energy Transition to help South Africa move to clean energy
  • UK Presidency welcomes alignment of $130 trillion of private finance to science-based net zero targets and near term milestones, through the Glasgow Financial Alliance for Net Zero.

Finance Ministers, International Finance Institutions and the financial sector are meeting at COP26 today to get global finance flowing for climate action.

Mobilising finance is critical if we are to deliver the urgent action we need to limit global temperature rises to 1.5C. Trillions of dollars of additional investment a year are needed to secure a low-carbon future and support countries already living with the devastating impacts of climate change.

COP26 President Alok Sharma said:

Today, there is more public and private finance for climate action than ever before.

But to meet the commitments made in the Paris Agreement and keep 1.5 alive, we need developed countries to deliver on public finance, and to unleash the trillions required in private investment to create a net zero future and protect lives and livelihoods from the devastating effects of climate change.

“That is why we have made finance such a key focus of COP26, why these new commitments from nations and the private finance sector are so welcome, and why we continue to push for countries to do more to meet their finance obligations. Countries are telling us what they need, now global finance needs to respond.”

Meeting the $100 billion commitment and financing adaptation

Countries made new commitments to increase finance to support developing countries to deal with the impacts of climate change, including a commitment from Norway to triple its adaptation finance, commitments from Japan and Australia to double their adaptation finance, and commitments from Switzerland, the US and Canada for the Adaptation Fund.

This included the largest US adaptation finance commitment to date, to reduce climate impacts on those most vulnerable to climate change worldwide. While Canada committed to allocate 40% of its climate finance to adaptation.

New commitments for climate financing also came from the United Kingdom, Spain, Japan, Australia, Norway, Ireland and Luxembourg, that build on the plan set out ahead of COP26 to deliver the $100 billion per year to developing countries.

To combat the difficulties many countries face with the bureaucracy of securing climate investment, £100 million in new funding from the United Kingdom was announced today to support the approach of the Taskforce on Access to Climate Finance, co-chaired by the UK and Fiji.

The taskforce launched a partnership with five ‘pioneer countries’ – Bangladesh, Fiji, Jamaica, Rwanda and Uganda – to support them and their local communities to get the finance they need for their climate plans.

Further commitments are expected over the coming days, including on adaptation. COP will also see the launch of discussions on a new global finance goal to replace the $100 billion goal from 2025.

Public finance for a net zero future

Demonstrating the direct benefits of what public climate financing can achieve: leaders from South Africa, the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Germany and the European Union yesterday announced a ground-breaking partnership to support South Africa with an accelerated just energy transition.

As a first step, the international partnership announced that $8.5 billion can be made available over the next 3-5 years to support South Africa – the world’s most carbon-intensive electricity producer – to achieve the most ambitious emissions reduction target within its upgraded and ambitious Nationally Determined Contribution.

Mobilizing private finance

Finance Ministers also discussed that the billions of dollars in public finance must be used to leverage the trillions of dollars in private finance needed for a climate resilient, net zero future, and how to support developing countries to access that finance.

The United States, the European Commission and the UK also committed to work in partnership with countries to support a green and resilient recovery from COVID-19 and boost investment for clean, green infrastructure in developing countries.

The UK also committed £576 million at COP for a package of initiatives to mobilise finance into emerging markets and developing economies, including £66 million to expand the UK’s MOBILIST programme, which helps to develop new investment products which can be listed on public markets and attract different types of investors.

Initiatives announced by the World Bank Group and Asian Development Bank will share risk with developing countries and aim to raise up to $8.5 billion in new finance in support of climate action and sustainable development. There was also the launch of an innovative new financing mechanism – the Climate Investment Funds’ Capital Markets Mechanism (CCMM) that will boost investment into clean energy like solar and wind power in developing countries.

Aligning private finance to net zero

Private financial institutions also took a major step to ensure that existing and future investments are aligned to the global goal of net zero.

Thirty six countries agreed to mandatory actions to ensure that investors have access to reliable information about climate risk to guide their investments into greener areas. And to ensure common standards, 38 countries welcomed the announcement of a new international body, the International Sustainability Standards Board (ISSB).

Over $130 trillion of private finance is now committed to science-based net zero targets and near term milestones, through the Glasgow Financial Alliance for Net Zero, led by Mark Carney.

GFANZ members are required to set robust, science-based near-term targets within 12-18 months of joining, and more than 90 of the founding institutions have already done so. A key focus of GFANZ is supporting developing countries and emerging markets.

The UK Chancellor also announced plans to make the UK’s financial centre aligned to net-zero. Under the proposals, there will be new requirements for UK financial institutions and listed companies to publish net zero transition plans that detail how they will adapt and decarbonise as the UK moves towards to a net zero economy by 2050.


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Notes to Editors

$100 billion climate finance goal

The Climate Finance Delivery Plan was published by the COP26 Presidency last week. Led by German State Secretary Flasbarth and Canada’s Minister Wilkinson, at the request of the COP President, the plan shows the trajectory for developed countries to deliver on the agreed goal of mobilizing $100 billion per year in climate finance to support developing countries.

The COP Presidency is tracking post 2020 climate finance commitments by developed countries on the COP26 website.

Taskforce on Access to Climate finance

The UK announced £100 million to respond to recommendations from the Taskforce on Access to Climate Finance, co-chaired by the UK and Fiji, to provide capital grants to the most climate vulnerable countries to help them deliver ambitious climate plans. Access to finance is directly linked with countries’ emissions reduction and adaptation plans which creates incentives for greater climate ambition in these plans.

Glasgow Financial Alliance for Net Zero

  • The Glasgow Financial Alliance for Net Zero (GFANZ) is a global coalition of leading financial institutions in the UN’s Race to Zero that is committed to accelerating and mainstreaming the decarbonisation of the world economy and reaching net-zero emissions by 2050.
  • It provides a practitioner-led forum for financial firms to collaborate on substantive, crosscutting issues that will accelerate the alignment of financing activities with net zero and support efforts by all companies, organisations, and countries to achieve the goals of the 2015 Paris Agreement. To ensure credibility and consistency, access to GFANZ is grounded in the UN’s Race to Zero campaign, and entry requirements are tailored to the activities of the diverse firms represented. Further details can be found on
  • Today, through the Glasgow Financial Alliance for Net Zero (GFANZ) over $130 trillion of private capital is committed to transforming the economy for net zero, including commitment, from over 450 firms across 45 countries.
  • Now firms across the entire financial spectrum – banks, insurers, pension funds, asset managers, export credit agencies, stock exchanges, credit rating agencies, index providers and audit firms – have committed to high ambition, science-based targets, including achieving net zero emissions by 2050 at the latest, delivering their fair share of 50% emission reductions this decade, and reviewing their targets towards this every five years. All firms will report their progress and financed emissions annually.

Global climate reporting standards

  • The IFRS Foundation announced the establishment of an International Sustainability Standards Board (ISSB) to develop comprehensive global baseline sustainability reporting standards under robust governance and public oversight. The IFRS Foundation confirmed agreements with existing sustainability reporting bodies to create the global standard-setter for sustainability disclosures for the capital markets.
  • The Foundation also published two prototype standards to enable the ISSB to rapidly build on existing frameworks – including the Task Force on Climate-Related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) – when developing its standards. Standards will be subject to full public consultation and can be considered for adoption by jurisdictions on a voluntary basis. Jurisdictions will have their own legal frameworks for adopting, applying or otherwise making use of international standards.
  • Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors from 38 jurisdictions from across 6 continents (see below) publicly welcomed the announcement of the establishment of the ISSB and its work programme to develop a set of internationally consistent, high-quality, and reliable baseline standards for disclosure of sustainability-related information on enterprise value creation.
  • Jurisdictions are: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Egypt, Ethiopia, European Commission, Fiji, France, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Korea, Luxembourg, Maldives, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Tonga, Turkey, UK, Uruguay, USA

Mobilising green investments into developing countries

New expertise and funding is being announced to support developing countries to mobilise finance for low carbon, resilient development. Including: 

  • The Climate Investment Funds (CIF) Capital Market Mechanism (CCMM) initiative will raise finance for projects in clean energy and sustainable infrastructure in developing and emerging economies. Bonds are planned to be issued in 2022 in the City of London and could mobilize up to $700 million annually, with the potential to leverage a further $70 billion from both the private and public sector
  • The International Finance Corporation (IFC), with the Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA), Allianz, through Allianz Global Investors, today launched a new global platform, MCPP One Planet, for Paris-Aligned climate smart investments that will provide up to $3 billion to private enterprises in developing economies.
  • The Asian Development Bank (ADB) launched the Energy Transition Mechanism (ETM) to accelerate the retiring of coal power and the move to clean energy, one of the key goals for COP26. As part of the pilot phase in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Viet Nam, the ETM is expected to raise $2.5 to $3.5 billion to retire 2-3 coal-fired power plants per country.
  • The International Finance Corporation (IFC), together with Amundi, announced a new $2 billion fund that will help to directly mobilize private investment into sustainable and green bonds in emerging markets. It will channel capital from institutional investors into anchor investments involving sustainable bond issuances from developing countries. It will provide a new model for other asset managers and institutional investors to replicate – giving a major boost to affordable green finance.

UK Finance

  • The UK announced a total package of £576 million to mobilise finance into emerging markets and developing economies to fund their green transition. This includes an additional £66 million for MOBILIST, the UK’s flagship programme that supports the development of listed investment products and provides developing countries with improved access to international capital markets, and projects announced on the opening days of COP26: £110 million to the ASEAN Green Catalytic Finance Facility to support investment in sustainable infrastructure across ASEAN; £200 million for a new “Climate Innovation Facility” delivered under the UK’s development finance institution CDC to boost investment into the most pioneering climate solutions in developing countries; and £200 million for the Lowering Emissions by Accelerating Forest Finance (LEAF) Coalition to protect tropical forests.
COP26 Logo 'UN Climate Change Conference UK 2021 In partnership with Italy'


MDB Joint Climate Statement

Climate change, and the parallel crisis of environmental degradation, are critical factors affecting the development prospects of countries, businesses, and households, and threatening to reverse years of development progress. Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs) have proven to be essential partners in global efforts to manage the urgent transitions climate change will involve, through the financial, technical, and knowledge support we provide, tailored to our clients’ unique domestic and international circumstances.

To set the world on a sustainable development path requires a significant expansion and acceleration of climate action across countries and economic sectors, taking into account the findings of the Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released in August 2021.

We welcome the growing ambition reflected in the new Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and we will continue to support the delivery of these plans in developing countries, building on our track records of supporting low-carbon, climate-resilient, and nature-based solutions for sustainable development. We will also contribute more broadly through our joint and individual efforts to align our financing flows with the Paris Agreement and in our work supporting our clients to develop ambitious Long Term Strategies (LTSs).

MDBs are delivering

  • Since the Paris Agreement was signed in 2015, MDBs have significantly scaled up their activity to address the climate crisis.
  • Total MDB climate finance reached US$66 billion in 2020, of which US$38 billion was for low- and middle-income countries.
  • Since 2011, total MDB support for climate action in low- and middle-income countries has totalled over US$300 billion, and in 2019 MDBs provided 46% of public climate finance.
  • MDB adaptation finance to low- and middle-income countries increased to US$13 billion in 2020 from US$5 billion in 2015, with the adaptation share rising from 20% to 35% over this period.
  • Since 2015, MDBs have mobilised over US$100 billion in climate co-finance from the private sector. Climate co-finance for low- and middle-income countries from public and private sources reached US$36 billion in 2020.
  • In 2017, MDBs committed to align their financial flows with the goals of the Paris Agreement, and at COP24 they published their joint approach, to put that commitment into action. Since then, MDBs have outlined a framework to assess the alignment of their investment projects with the goals of the Paris Agreement, and as of COP26, most have announced target dates for their Paris alignment commitments.
  • MDBs are actively supporting their client countries in developing their NDCs, and integrating climate factors in the formulation of country and sector development plans.

MDBs raising climate ambition for COP26 and beyond

Reflecting our individual mandates, approaches and capabilities:

  • MDBs are increasing climate finance, including the amount of finance available to support adaptation initiatives.
  • MDBs will aim to increase the level of private capital mobilised in support of mitigation and adaptation investments, using platforms, investment vehicles, and blended finance instruments, that are fit for purpose.
  • MDBs will promote natural capital, biodiversity, and nature-based solutions, as well as gendersmart solutions, which support client climate and environmental goals.
  • MDBs will support Just Transitions in communities, regions, and sectors directly impacted by the low-carbon energy, transport and industrial transitions.
  • In addition, MDBs are working to develop dedicated approaches to assess the Paris Alignment of policy-based lending, real sector operations and lending through financial intermediaries, and will soon begin to test these parts of the MDBs Paris alignment frameworks.
  • MDBs are also working and collaborating to enhance support to countries for the formulation of robust and ambitious NDCs, LTSs, and National Adaptation Plans (NAPs) in line with the Paris Agreement goals. This includes enhancing synergies between these instruments and ensuring they are mainstreamed into national development plans. MDBs are working together to increase the level of funding and coordination of their support at national, sub-national and sector level to facilitate the development and implementation of LTSs, including by exploring the potential establishment of a joint MDB LTS Facility.
  • MDBs are working with clients to develop plans to integrate the transition to a net-zero emissions and climate-resilient economy with development programs in key sectors such as energy, cities, food and land use, water, and industry.
  • MDBs are prioritising the development of cost-effective and equitable approaches to decommissioning coal and other high-GHG emission systems, taking into account socioeconomic trade-offs.
  • MDBs are working to accelerate climate finance for cities, reflecting their key role in developing and implementing climate action at the local level.
  • MDBs are supporting their client countries to design, pilot and implement carbon pricing instruments, including carbon taxes and fossil fuel subsidy reduction.


The effective implementation of MDB climate action and Paris alignment relies first and foremost on the quality and depth of engagement with countries of operations and clients. The necessary acceleration in MDB climate action to address the climate and environmental emergencies, also depend on broad shareholder and donor support, in terms of strategy and resources. In implementing their climate strategies, MDBs will pursue an active coordination and partnership approach with organisations and coalitions, working to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement.

African Development Bank
Asian Development Bank
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
Council of Europe Development Bank
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
European Investment Bank
Inter American Development Bank Group
Islamic Development Bank
New Development Bank
World Bank Group

Picture of delegates listening to Boris Johnson


Around 120 leaders gather at COP26 in Glasgow for ‘last, best chance’ to keep 1.5 alive

5 minute read

  • COP26 President Alok Sharma calls for immediate action and solidarity to ensure Glasgow delivers on the promise of Paris 
  • Leaders addressed by young climate activists, indigenous peoples and business leaders from across the globe as they focus on keeping 1.5C within reach
  • New country and finance announcements due, including additional UK package to mobilise billions of private investment into green, resilient infrastructure in developing countries

Around 120 leaders came together in Glasgow today (Monday) at the start of COP26, launching two weeks of global negotiations to help determine whether humanity can drive forward the urgent action needed to avoid catastrophic climate change.

As the world experiences record temperatures and extreme weather pushing the planet dangerously close to climate catastrophe, the need for urgent action at COP26 has never been clearer. 

Addressing leaders at the first major global gathering since the COVID-19 pandemic, COP President Alok Sharma said: “The science is clear that the window of time we have to keep the goal of 1.5℃ alive , and to avoid the worst effects of climate change, is closing fast. But with political will and commitment, we can, and must, deliver an outcome in Glasgow the world can be proud of.”

Leaders were also addressed by poet Yrsa Daley-Ward, whose specially commissioned poem Earth to COP includes the lines: “Anything less than your best is too much to pay. Anything later than now, too little, too late. Nothing will change without you.”

And campaigner, Kenyan environment and climate activist Elizabeth Wathuti who said: “We need you to respond with courage to the climate and ecological crisis…for these next two weeks – which are so critical for the children, for our species, for so many other living beings – let us step into our hearts.”

COP26 brings the major emitting countries face to face with the countries most vulnerable to climate change. The World Leaders Summit will send a clear signal to negotiators to be as ambitious as possible and agree to a negotiated outcome that accelerates action this decade.

The Summit will also underscore that the Paris Agreement is working, with increased commitments on finance, emissions and adaptation as we see the first crank of the Paris Agreement ratchet. 

Moving from the promise of Paris, announcements in key sectors will start to show how Glasgow will deliver. This includes new commitments on consigning coal to history, electric cars, reducing deforestation and addressing methane emissions.

Building on the publication of the $100 billion delivery plan, which the Presidency requested the Canadian and German governments lead, finance will remain a key priority. Discussions will centre on how the countries most vulnerable to climate change can access the finance needed to deliver climate adaptation and boost green recovery from the pandemic. 

Further to the commitment to mobilise finance, the opening of COP26 saw several new finance announcements to progress action on the $100 billion and address adaptation finance.

The UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced a funding package, as part of the UK’s Clean Green Initiative, to support the rollout of sustainable infrastructure and revolutionary green technology in developing countries. This includes:

  • A package of guarantees to the World Bank and the African Development Bank to provide £2.2bn ($3bn) for investments in climate-related projects in India, supporting India’s target to achieve 450 GW of renewable energy installed capacity by 2030, and across Africa. 
  • The UK’s development finance institution, CDC, will commit to deliver more than £3bn of climate financing for green growth over the next five years. This will include £200m for a new Climate Innovation Facility to support the scale-up of technologies that will  help communities deal with the impacts of climate change. This is double the amount of climate finance CDC invested in its previous strategy period from 2017-2021. 
  • The FCDO-backed Private Infrastructure Development Group (PIDG) will also commit more than £210m in new investment today(MON) to back transformational green projects in developing countries such as Vietnam, Burkina Faso, Pakistan, Nepal and Chad.

Later Prime Minister Johnson will host a roundtable on ‘Action and Solidarity’ bringing campaigners on climate together. This is expected to include Samoan climate campaigner Brianna Fruean, Brazilian climate campaigner Walelasoetxeige Paiter Bandeira Suruí, and Kenyan youth activist Elizabeth Wathuti, together with some of the biggest emitting and climate vulnerable nations to set the tone for negotiations at COP26.  

The World Leaders Summit will continue tomorrow with further national statements and Leader events on action on forests and land use and accelerating clean technology, innovation and development.

Notes for editors:
  • Official photography from COP26 is available to download here: 
  • The world needs to secure global net zero by 2050 and halve emissions by 2030 to keep 1.5 degrees of warming in reach.
  • To do this the UK COP26 Presidency is calling on countries to set ambitious 2030 emissions reduction targets and take action to:
    • consign coal power to history
    • accelerate the move to clean electric vehicles
    • end deforestation
    • finance the green transition and help the most vulnerable countries
  • Almost 200 countries will come together in Glasgow, in the biggest international summit the UK has ever hosted.
  • Negotiations, run by the UN, will focus on securing the final parts of the Paris Agreement, setting national targets for reducing emissions by 2030 and reaching net zero. 
  • Coming out of COP26, we need to see a negotiated outcome that responds to the emissions gap and sets the tone for the next decade to keep 1.5C alive.